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Device Simulation a Step Closer to Real Life - Spice Models Offer Additional Thermal Characteristics


Software tools like Spice are widely used in electronics design and useful for simulation and optimization of circuits. Often the theoretical behaviour is, however, not matching to the later on real life testing, which requires in worst case a time consuming re-design. One reason for such mismatch is the lack of comprehensive thermal characteristics in Spice models, as offered by many suppliers. While e. g. the temperature behaviour of forward voltage and reverse leakage of semiconductor diodes are part of almost every Spice model, it is seldom provided for the voltage drift of Zener and TVS diodes, or the presumed constant current of CLDs (Current Limiting Diodes). And exactly that can cause an issue, when later the device is operated in the real circuit and gets unavoidable warm under load.

The Spice models provided by Diotec for its Zener and TVS diodes, CLDs but of course also all rectifiers are made with additional temperature characterisation.

Provided that Spice simulation is done with different temperature presettings, one can see the behaviour under real junction conditions and can adjust the circuit where necessary. The picture shows as an example the temperature behaviour of an uncompensated and a compensated CLD.

Spice models for Diotec products are accessible via www.diotec.com using simply the part search function.
Here just three examples for your testing:

ZMY18 [https://diotec.com/tl_files/diotec/files/spice/zmy18.zip]
P4SMAJ30A [https://diotec.com/tl_files/diotec/files/spice/p4smaj30a.zip]
CL10MD [https://diotec.com/tl_files/diotec/files/spice/cl10md.zip]

LDI812C-3.3SFA: Ultra Low Power LDO - For High Accuracy and Performance in Low-power Electronic Devices


The Internet of Things is constantly evolving all around the world. Many of these devices are compact, wearable, battery powered or integrated into consumer and industrial electronics. Minimizing the battery discharge is an essential need for keeping these electronic gadgets work for long durations. It requires LDOs with very low quiescent currents, for minimizing power consumption during stand by mode.

The LDI812C-3.3SFA from Diotec is a CMOS based high voltage low-dropout positive voltage regulator, specifically designed for low-power electronics and battery operated systems where power savings are decisive. This device can be operated at a wide range of input voltage up to 16 V. It features a fixed output voltage of 3.3 V and output current rating of 50 mA. Dropout voltage is as low as 230 mV and quiescent current ultra-low at typically 1 µA.

The device facilitates minimal board space due to its small outline dimensions and a potentially smaller output ceramic capacitor of 1.0 µF.



  • CMOS Based Voltage Regulator
  • Low Dropout of typically 230 mV
  • Quiescent Current typically 1.0 µA
  • Narrow Tolerance ± 2 %
  • Low Power Consumption


  • Internet of Things
  • Portable & Battery Powered Devices
  • Communication Devices


TVS Diodes for Almost All Kind of Applications - High Performance Protection for Green and Sustainable Technologies

TVS diodes

To design sustainable or "green" technologies means also to ensure longest possible lifetimes of electronic devices, once they are produced. An important item is here the protection against transient voltage peaks, as they occur on the power grid in case of lightning strikes. Transient Voltage Suppressors (TVS) prevent high voltage surges from damaging sensitive electronic circuits. Diotec offers TVS Diodes for almost all kind of applications, and from low up to very high voltage levels. Check out our latest Application Note to find the optimal TVS solution for your project.

1.35 A Low-Dropout Positive Voltage Regulators: High efficiency. Small size.


The LDI1117 series by Diotec are positive linear voltage regulators with low dropout and output currents of up to 1.35 A. They offer a typical voltage drop of 1.15 V at 1 A and can be operated at up to 20 V of input voltage (maximum rating).

Parts are available with adjustable output voltage, ranging from 1.25 V to 13.65 V and set-up by just two additional resistors. Further available are versions offering a fixed output voltage of 1.2 V, 1.5 V, 1.8 V, 2.5 V, 3.3 V or 5.0 V.

All versions feature integrated current limiting and thermal shut-down circuits, which prevent damage in case of overload conditions. Furthermore, its internal circuitry comprises of trimmed bandgap reference, ensuring the tight output voltage accuracy of 1% tolerance. Adding of 22 pF at the output is recommended to attenuate transient response and ensure stability.

They are offered in low profile and space saving packages like SOT-223, SO-8 and SOT-89. All these packages are totally lead-free and in full compliance to ROHS and REACH without any exemptions.


  • Low dropout: Typ. 1.15 V
  • Narrow Tolerance
  • Current Limiting & Thermal Overload Protection
  • Totally lead-free devices



  • Post regulators for switch mode power supplies
  • Battery Chargers
  • USB devices
  • Active SCSI termination regulator

Polarity Protection for Sensitive Automotive Electronics - Three common solutions and its benefits and drawbacks

Reverse Polarity Protection

Automotive electronic circuits must be protected against reverse polarity. Such events may occur e. g. during service time or jump-starts of the vehicle. For this purpose, hardware designers must take appropriate measures to keep automotive electronics unharmed after a reverse polarity event.
Diotec offers a wide range of AEC-Q101 qualified parts to avoid negative current flow. Our Application Note describes three of the most common solutions for reverse polarity protection, including benefits and drawbacks as well as recommended components.


Bidirectional Zener Diode in Single Package Outline: Two-in-one solution offers cost reduction and board space savings


The MM3BZ18 from Diotec combines two opposing 18 V Zener diodes on a single chip. It comes in the tiny SMD outline SOD-323, measuring only 2.5 mm x 1.25 mm and featuring a low profile height of just 1 mm. As such, it is ideally suited for very compact electronic assemblies.

Forming a bidirectional Zener diode, this part allows for positive and negative voltage clipping by just one component. It offers a sharp Zener voltage breakdown of nominal 18 V at 1 mA, a very low leakage current of less than 100 nA at 13 V and up to 200 mW of steady-state power dissipation.

Such device is ideally suited for AC voltage clipping circuits in motor control of brushless power tools, wide range input stages, smart home and IoT applications and further more. The two-in-one configuration enables design engineers to reduce component count, which not only saves board space but also costs for material and assembly.



  • Bidirectional configuration
  • Low leakage current
  • Board space savings
  • Cost reductions



  • Voltage Clipping Circuits
  • Wide Range Input Stages
  • Control of Brushless Power Tools
  • Offline Battery Chargers
  • Smart Home and IoT Applications

Cost Effective Yet Powerful Load Dump Protection Diodes: LDP01 and LDP02 in D²PAK offering 5 kW respectively 6.6 kW of peak pulse power


Especially in applications without centralized load dump protection, such as several motorbikes, a powerful yet cost effective load dump protection of distributed board electronics is desirable. The typically used package outline DO-218AB is offering a high performance, but is limited to load dump TVS devices and runs therefore in lower volumes only, causing higher device costs. The D²PAK offers a similar case outline but is an absolute industry standard package, used for high volume devices like Rectifiers and Schottkys. The LDP01 and LDP02 series by Diotec uses TVS chips capable for 5 kW respectively 6.6 kW of peak pulse power; both parts can pass load dump pulses according to ISO-16750-2 2012E – Table 5 Test A. First parts available are the LDP01-26AYD2-AQ, LDP01-28AYD2-AQ and LDP02-28AYD2-AQ, suitable for 12 V systems. Qualification according to AEC-Q101 is in progress and close to be completed. For general information about load dump protection diodes, please refer to our Application Note.


40 A/30 V Power MOSFET On Just 3.3 x 3.3 mm² DI040N03PT-AQ: Low Rds(on) in Tiny QFN3x3 Package with AEC-Q101 Qualification


The DI040N03PT-AQ comes in the tiny QFN3x3, a so called "leadless" power package where the connections are almost all "hidden" on the bottom side of the device. As such the board space requirement is no more than 3.3 x 3.3 mm². The low Rds(on) of this Power MOSFET device of typically 6 mOhm allows for a Drain current of up to 40 A at 25°C case temperature. Drain-Source voltage can be up to 30 V, with a single pulse avalanche capability of 100 mJ. Parts are not only suited for DC operation, but due to their low turn-on and -off characteristics also for high frequency switching. Typical applications are USB charger, power management units, battery powered devices, load switches and polarity protection. Beside the AEC-Q101 qualified part DI040N03PT-AQ also the commercial grade version DI040N03PT can be ordered. Samples are available from stock.


Correct Bending of Axial Lead Wires: Let us do it for you!

Correct Bending - flower bent down

Like flower stalks do not like to be buckled, also axial leads of semiconductor diodes require a certain, "sensitive" treatment, in order to reach a long lifetime of the part.

Axial lead devices are still used in huge volumes for many kinds of applications. Especially in (very) high voltage circuits they provide superior creepage and clearance over "small" SMD components. Before such parts can be assembled into the PCB, their lead wires need to be cut and bent for the desired length and raster. If this mechanical process is done in the wrong way, especially with no or no sufficient strain relief, a (pre-)damage of the semiconductor chip is likely. At best the part is broken immediately and can be replaced, but in worst case it will appear only later in the field with all the unwanted and unnecessary consequences. Our Application Note describes how the cutting and bending has to be done the right way, for high productivity and high reliability of the produced circuits.

And if you let us do the entire process for you, you can be assured that all components arrive in perfect shape and quality at your site. You just need to assemble it! Send your mechanical drawing or even a sketch of how you would like to have the leads formed to your authorized Diotec sales channel, and we will provide you our offer for this customer service.


Small Signal Devices: Performance without Compromise

small signal

Small signal devices are semiconductor components found in almost every electronic circuit. They are used in a variety of applications such as analogue and digital broadcasting, logic ciruits, computing, controls and automation, processing "small signals" with short duration, low power and mostly high frequencies. The current market demand for portable digital communications, signal processing equipment and other handheld multimedia creates the necessity for miniaturized electronic components to enable slim and small designs, but without compromising in funcionality and performance.

Diotec offers a wide range of small signal components including high-speed Switching Diodes, Zener Diodes, ESD Protection Diodes, Voltage Regulators, Bipolar Transistors and MOSFETs. Package sizes are 0603, 1608, SOT-23, SOT-323, SOT-363, SOT-26, SOD-523, (Power)SOD-323, SOD-123(F/FL), SOD-106 and SOD-80C. With the exemption of the last two packages, all of these are totally free of lead (Pb), with other words fully RoHS compliant without any exemption. You will find more detailed infomation in our actual Application Note.